Ermüdung  

Das Empfinden von mentaler und/oder muskulärer „Ermüdung“ ist ein zentrales Phänomen bei (ungewohnt) langanhaltender oder intensiver körperlicher Belastung insbesondere in variierenden Umweltbedingungen (Hitze, Kälte oder Höhe) sowie ernährungsbedingte Kalorienrestriktion und wird meist durch den Abfall muskulärer Leistungsfähigkeit sichtbar [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Durch entsprechendes körperliches und mentales Training sowie spezielle technologische Maßnahmen [9][11] und Ernährung [12] wird versucht dem ermüdungsbedingtem Leistungsverlust entgegenzuwirken. Die Gründe für das Eintreten der Ermüdung sind vielfältig, komplex und werden wissenschaftlich intensiv diskutiert[13] [14][16]. Es existierten etliche physiologische, biochemische und -mechanische sowie kognitive Erklärungsmodelle, die aber nicht in Gänze die komplexe Erscheinung „Ermüdung“ all umfassend erklären können  [17][18]. Häufig wird das Eintreten von Ermüdungssymptomen auch als Schutzmechanismus vor Verletzung, Überlastung oder gar Tod angesehen [3][7][17][20].

Einzelnachweise

  1. Kay, D., et al., Evidence for neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity cycling in warm, humid conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2001. 84(1-2): p. 115-21.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11394239
  2. Green, H.J., Mechanisms of muscle fatigue in intense exercise. J Sports Sci, 1997.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9232550
  3. Kay, D. and F.E. Marino, Fluid ingestion and exercise hyperthermia: implications for performance, thermoregulation, metabolism and the development of fatigue. J Sports Sci, 2000. 18(2): p. 71-82.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10718562
  4. Wilmore, J.H. and D.L. Costill, Physiology of sport and exercise. 2nd ed1999, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. xvii, 710 p.
  5. Millet, G., et al., Influence of ultra-long-term fatigue on the oxygen cost of two types of locomotion. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2000. 83(4 -5): p. 376-80.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11138578
  6. Millet, G.Y., et al., Alterations of neuromuscular function after an ultramarathon. J Appl Physiol, 2002. 92(2): p. 486-92.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11796655
  7. Pinniger, G.J., J.R. Steele, and H. Groeller, Does fatigue induced by repeated dynamic efforts affect hamstring muscle function? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2000. 32(3): p. 647-653.→ http://www.fisiocenterpuebla.com/Portals/0/Documentos/H/HamstringsTear%20XV.pdf
  8. Gibson, A.S., M.I. Lambert, and T.D. Noakes, Neural control of force output during maximal and submaximal exercise. Sports Medicine, 2001. 31(9): p. 637-650.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11508520
  9. Sperlich, B., et al., Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance? Mil Med, 2009. 174(9): p. 977-82.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19780375
  10. Born, D.P., B. Sperlich, and H.C. Holmberg, Bringing light into the dark: effects of compression clothing on performance and recovery. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2013. 8(1): p. 4-18.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23302134
  11. Sperlich, B., et al., The effects of 6-week-decoupled bi-pedal cycling on submaximal and high intensity performance in competitive cyclists and triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2011. 111(8): p. 1625-30.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193924
  12. Zinner, C., et al., Effects of bicarbonate ingestion and high intensity exercise on lactate and H(+)-ion distribution in different blood compartments. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2011. 111(8): p. 1641-8.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21197542
  13. Noakes, T.D., J.E. Peltonen, and H.K. Rusko, Evidence that a central governor regulates exercise performance during acute hypoxia and hyperoxia. J Exp Biol, 2001. 204(Pt 18): p. 3225-34.→ http://jeb.biologists.org/content/204/18/3225.long
  14. Noakes, T.D. and F.E. Marino, Point: maximal oxygen uptake is limited by a central nervous system governor. J Appl Physiol, 2009. 106(1): p. 338-9; discussion 341.
  15. Calbet, J.A., Comments of point:counterpoint: maximal oxygen uptake is/is not limited by a central nervous system governor. J Appl Physiol (1985), 2009. 106(1): p. 346.
  16. Ekblom, B.T., Last word on point:counterpoint: maximal oxygen uptake is/is not limited by a central nervous system governor. J Appl Physiol (1985), 2009. 106(1): p. 348.
  17. Noakes, T.D., Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2000. 10(3): p. 123-45.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10843507
  18. Hampson, D.B., et al., The influence of sensory cues on the perception of exertion during exercise and central regulation of exercise performance. Sports Med, 2001. 31(13): p. 935-52.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11708402
  19. Hunter, A.M., et al., Effects of supramaximal exercise on the electromyographic signal. Br J Sports Med, 2003. 37(4): p. 296-9.→ http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/37/4/296.full
  20. Gabriel, D.A., J.R. Basford, and K.N. An, Neural adaptations to fatigue: implications for muscle strength and training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33(8): p. 1354-60.→ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11474338